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In recent decades, historians have used social and cultural history to study crime and criminal justice as a major aspect of social history. Princess Alexandrina Victoria (future Queen Victoria) was christened in Kensington Palace. Sir Stamford Raffles, a British administrator, founded Singapore. Studies of criminality, criminal trials, punishment, legislation, and penal reform have focused especially on England, with special attention to London. First steam-propelled vessel (the SS Savannah) crossed the Atlantic and arrived in Liverpool from Savannah, Georgia. The issues addressed include how the middle and working classes used the judicial system to their own advantage, even though it was controlled by a small upper-class. Death of George III and accession of The Prince Regent as George IV. The influence of the emerging industrial revolution had attracted attention to crime in rapidly growing cities. Riot in Stanhope, County Durham between lead miners and the Bishop of Durham's men over Weardale game rights. The House of Lords passed a bill to grant George IV a divorce from Queen Caroline, but because of public pressure the bill was dropped.
War was waged with Napoleon and on other fronts, affecting commerce both at home and internationally, as well as politics.
The Duke of Wellington held off the French at Fuentes d'Onoro and Albuhera in the Peninsular War. June 19, 1811, at Carlton House in celebration of his assumption of the Regency. Final shipment of the Elgin Marbles arrived in England. Shipping and territory disputes started the War of 1812 between the United Kingdom and the United States. The death of Princess Charlotte (the Prince Regent's daughter) from complications of childbirth changed obstetrical practices.
The British were victorious over French armies at the Battle of Salamanca. Charles Dickens, English writer and social critic of the Victorian era, was born on 7 February 1812. William Hedley's Puffing Billy, an early steam locomotive, ran on smooth rails.
However, despite the bloodshed and warfare, the Regency was also a period of great refinement and cultural achievement, which shaped and altered the societal structure of Britain as a whole.
One of the greatest patrons of the arts and architecture was the Prince Regent himself (the future George IV).